As the digital landscape continues to expand globally, the significance of Internationalization (i18n) and Localization (L10n) in software development cannot be overstated. Building upon our previous exploration of Website and App Localization, this blog delves into the broader spectrum of these practices and their transformative impact on crafting a universal narrative. This time, we shine a spotlight on embracing common European languages and unlocking the potential of African languages in the realm of software development.

Unlocking Diversity with Internationalization:

Internationalization lays the foundation for a software product to be adapted to various languages and regions without altering its core code. By embracing standardization and considering cultural variations from the outset, businesses can pave the way for a more inclusive digital experience. From English, Spanish, and French to Swahili, Yoruba, and Zulu, the possibilities are vast.

Tailoring Experiences for European Audiences:

When considering common European languages, the goal is to create seamless experiences for users across the continent. Adapting interfaces and content to languages such as German, Spanish, and Italian ensures that the software resonates with diverse European audiences, fostering a deeper connection and engagement.

Empowering African Markets through Localization:

The potential of African markets is immense, and localization plays a pivotal role in tapping into this diversity. Incorporating languages like Arabic, Swahili, and Hausa not only breaks linguistic barriers but also opens doors to new opportunities. By making software accessible in local languages, businesses can establish meaningful connections and gain trust in the vibrant African tech landscape.

Strategic Considerations for Language Inclusion:

  1. Linguistic Diversity as a Competitive Edge: Recognizing and incorporating diverse languages in software development is not just about meeting regional requirements but also gaining a competitive edge. The ability to cater to a multilingual audience positions businesses as adaptable and culturally sensitive.
  2. Navigating Challenges and Maximizing Impact: Acknowledging the challenges of internationalization and localization, this blog explores effective strategies to overcome linguistic and cultural hurdles. From Unicode support to context-aware translation, we unravel the keys to maximizing impact across global markets.

Success Stories in Multilingual Implementation:

Highlighting success stories of internationalization and localization, this section explores how global tech giants have strategically approached language diversity. Whether it’s the adoption of Spanish on a widely used social media platform or the expansion into diverse African markets, these case studies illustrate the tangible benefits of a well-executed language strategy.

Crafting a Unified User Experience: In conclusion, the fusion of Internationalization and Localization isn’t just a technical necessity; it’s a powerful tool for crafting a unified user experience worldwide. As businesses embark on the journey of reaching new horizons, embracing the richness of languages, both European and African, becomes a cornerstone for success in the ever-evolving digital space.

In today’s interconnected world, the strategic importance of Software Localization, with a special focus on Website and App Translation, has become paramount. As businesses strive for global expansion, understanding the profound impact of adapting digital assets to diverse linguistic and cultural landscapes is crucial.

 The Evolution of Software Localization

Software Localization has evolved beyond a mere translation process. It now encompasses a comprehensive strategy, with Website and App Translation emerging as key components. Let’s delve into the pivotal role these play in enhancing user experience, broadening market reach, and fostering global success.

Website and App Translation: Beyond Words

Cultural Resonance and User Engagement:

The crux of effective Website and App Translation lies in creating a user experience that transcends language barriers. By tailoring content to cultural nuances, businesses can establish a profound connection with users worldwide, fostering trust and engagement.

Global Market Penetration:

The benefits extend beyond language comprehension. Translating Websites and Apps opens doors to new markets, enabling businesses to tap into diverse demographics. This strategic move enhances market penetration and increases the potential for exponential growth.

Localization and Software Translation: Unveiling the Synergy

Enhancing User Interface (UI) and User Experience (UX):

Successful Software Localization involves more than language adaptation; it incorporates seamless integration with local UI/UX preferences. This ensures that the software feels native to users, further contributing to positive reception and adoption.

Efficiency and Scalability:

Efficient Software Translation is a linchpin for scalability. By breaking language barriers, businesses can scale their software products globally without the need for extensive overhauls. This efficiency proves instrumental in adapting to diverse markets swiftly.

Case Studies: Success Stories in Multilingual Implementation

E-Commerce Giants:

Major e-commerce platforms have witnessed unparalleled success by embracing Website and App Localization. Amazon, for instance, tailors its platform to local languages, enhancing the shopping experience and maximizing user engagement.

Global Apps with Local Appeal:

Social media apps like Facebook and Instagram exemplify the power of App Translation. These platforms resonate with users globally by providing content in their native languages, thereby creating a universally accessible and user-friendly experience.

 Crafting a Global Narrative

In conclusion, the transformative impact of Website and App Localization within the realm of Software Development cannot be overstated. Businesses that prioritize these strategies are not merely translating words; they are crafting a global narrative that resonates with diverse audiences. As we navigate the digital landscape, the fusion of Software Localization and Website/App Translation emerges as the key to unlocking unparalleled success on the global stage.

  1. Understanding Software Localization

Defining Software Localization

Software localization goes beyond mere translation; it involves adapting a piece of software to meet the linguistic, cultural, and functional requirements of a specific target market. This process ensures that the software feels native to users, regardless of their language or location.

 

Why Software Localization Matters

User Experience Enhancement: Users feel more comfortable and engaged when interacting with a software product in their native language. Localization enhances user experience by making the software more accessible and relatable.

Cultural Relevance: Different regions have distinct cultural nuances and preferences. Localization allows you to tailor your software to resonate with the cultural context of your target audience, fostering a deeper connection.

Legal Compliance: Some regions have specific legal requirements regarding language usage. Adhering to these regulations through localization helps your software stay compliant with local laws.

 

  1. The Role of Software Translation

Defining Software Translation

While localization focuses on adapting the entire user experience, software translation specifically involves converting text and content from one language to another. It is a fundamental aspect of the localization process.

 

Benefits of Software Translation

Global Market Penetration: By offering your software in multiple languages, you break down language barriers and open doors to new markets, expanding your user base globally.

Competitive Edge: In a crowded market, providing multilingual software gives you a competitive advantage. Users are more likely to choose a product that speaks their language.

Scalability: Translated software is scalable, allowing your business to grow and adapt to diverse markets without the need for a complete overhaul of your product.

 

  1. Achieving Success in Global Markets: Strategic Implementation

Strategic Implementation of Localization

Successfully navigating the global markets requires strategic implementation of software localization. Consider the following key steps:

Market Research: Conduct thorough research to understand the cultural and linguistic nuances of your target markets. This insight will guide your localization efforts and ensure maximum impact.

Adapting User Interface: Tailor the user interface to align with local preferences. This includes adjusting design elements, colors, and layouts to create a seamless and familiar experience for users.

Localized Marketing: Extend your localization efforts to marketing materials. Translate promotional content, advertisements, and campaigns to resonate with the local audience, enhancing the overall effectiveness of your marketing strategy.

By strategically implementing these steps, you can unlock the full potential of software localization, propelling your business to new heights in global markets.

In our interconnected world, legal disputes often transcend national borders, leading to an increase in international litigation. In such cases, accurate and reliable translation of legal documents plays a crucial role in ensuring effective communication, promoting fairness, and upholding the principles of justice. This article explores the impact of legal document translation on international litigation, highlighting the challenges, benefits, and best practices involved in this specialized area of translation.

Challenges and Best Practices in Legal Document Translation for International Litigation

 

  1. Bridging Language Barriers:

International litigation involves parties from different linguistic backgrounds, each with their own legal systems and languages. Legal document translation serves as a bridge, enabling clear and accurate communication between parties, their legal representatives, and the courts. Translating legal documents such as pleadings, motions, judgments, and evidence ensures that all parties can understand and respond to the legal proceedings effectively. By eliminating language barriers, translation facilitates a fair and equal access to justice for all parties involved.

 

  1. Preserving Legal Integrity:

Accurate translation of legal documents is essential for preserving the legal integrity of the original texts. Legal documents, including contracts, agreements, and court judgments, carry significant legal implications. Translators must ensure that the translated documents accurately reflect the meaning, intent, and legal consequences of the original texts. A minor mistranslation or misinterpretation could lead to misunderstandings, disputes, or even procedural errors. Accurate translation preserves the legal integrity of the documents, enabling the courts to make informed decisions based on accurate information.

 

  1. Adhering to Legal Terminology:

Legal terminology is highly specialized and often varies across jurisdictions and legal systems. Translating legal documents requires expertise in both the source and target legal systems and a deep understanding of the specific legal terminology used. Translators must ensure that legal terms and concepts are accurately translated, taking into account the nuances and context of each legal system. Adhering to legal terminology ensures that the translated documents are understood by legal professionals and effectively presented in court, minimizing misunderstandings and potential disputes arising from linguistic or cultural differences.

 

  1. Cultural Sensitivity:

In addition to accurate translation of legal terms, cultural sensitivity is crucial in international litigation. Legal systems are shaped not only by laws but also by cultural norms and practices. Legal document translation requires translators to consider the cultural context and adapt the translation accordingly. This includes understanding cultural nuances, idiomatic expressions, and cultural references that may be embedded in the original documents. By maintaining cultural sensitivity, translators ensure that the translated documents are not only accurate but also culturally appropriate, facilitating better understanding and communication in international litigation.

 

  1. Ensuring Consistency and Clarity:

Consistency and clarity in legal document translation are essential for effective litigation. Translators must ensure that legal concepts, arguments, and evidence are accurately and consistently translated throughout the entire legal process. This consistency promotes a clear and coherent presentation of the case, minimizing confusion and facilitating efficient proceedings. Translators also play a vital role in ensuring that complex legal concepts and arguments are expressed in a clear and concise manner, enabling judges, legal professionals, and parties involved to understand the arguments and make informed decisions.

 

  1. Collaboration with Legal Professionals:

Successful legal document translation in international litigation requires collaboration between translators and legal professionals. Translators work closely with legal practitioners to understand the legal context, clarify any ambiguities, and ensure the accuracy and effectiveness of the translations. Legal professionals provide valuable insights into the legal implications of the documents and help translators navigate the complexities of the legal system. This collaboration ensures that the translated documents serve their intended purpose in court, contributing to a fair and just legal process.

 

 

Legal document translation is of utmost importance in international litigation, ensuring effective communication, promoting fairness, and upholding the principles of justice. Accurate translation bridges language barriers, preserves legal integrity, and facilitates clear understanding of legal proceedings. By adhering to legal terminology, maintaining cultural sensitivity, ensuring consistency and clarity, and collaborating with legal professionals, translators contribute to a fair and efficient legal process in international litigation. The impact of legal document translation on international litigation cannot be overstated, as it enables parties from different linguistic and legal backgrounds to effectively navigate the complexities of cross-border legal disputes, ensuring equal access to justice and a level playing field for all.

 

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The highly diverse linguistic landscape found in China is owed to the fact that China is home to 56 ethnic groups, all of which have played important roles in developing the various linguistic varieties spoken in China today. Linguists believe that China is home to 297 living languages, which are found all over mainland China, Taiwan, Tibet and Hong Kong.

With over 1.5 billion speakers, Chinese is the most-spoken language not only in China, but in the entire world. But Mandarin is far from the only variation of the Chinese language, or the only language spoken in China. There are eight primary spoken dialects and hundreds of less common ones within mainland China, which, in general, are mutually unintelligible. These include: Mandarin, Standard Chinese, Gan, Hakka (Kejia), Min, Wu, Xiang and Yue (Cantonese).

While many Chinese people in different geographical areas of the country may not understand each other, they may share the same written language, even if the different characters or pronunciation within the language may vary. This is because, despite the vast number of different languages and dialects, there are only two scripts used to write the Chinese language: Simplified Chinese and Traditional Chinese.

Simplified Chinese is the ‘modern’ version of Chinese. It was widely promoted in the early 1950s as part of a Communist reforms system in mainland China, designed with the purpose of improving literacy among the population. It is mainly used in mainland China, Malaysia and Singapore, where people speak Simplified Mandarin. Traditional Chinese is the pre-reform system of Chinese writing. Traditional Chinese mainly used in Taiwan, where people speak Traditional Mandarin, and Hong Kong and Macao, where people mainly speak Traditional Cantonese.

The Significance of Mandarin and Cantonese: China’s Two Most Prominent Languages

The two most well-known and most-spoken variants of Chinese are Mandarin and Cantonese. As they are mutually unintelligible, they cannot be considered dialects but actual languages. The differences between Mandarin and Cantonese are significant in both their written and spoken forms, including: number of tones, initial consonants and vowel length. In terms of representation around the world, Cantonese has around 66 million speakers, while Mandarin has over 1 billion.

Apart from all the variations of the Chinese language, many more minority languages can also be found within China, such as Mongolian, Uyghur, Miao and Tibetan, to name a few. English is one of the most important foreign languages in China, with over 10 million speakers all over the country, most of which are found in the country’s urban centers. In Hong Kong, English has the status of an official language and is used in both print and electronic media, as well as during international engagements. Portuguese is another major foreign language in China, which is used as the official language in Macau.

Japan is ethnically, linguistically and culturally a very homogenous nation, where nearly 99% of the population speaks Nihongo (Japanese) as their first language. This dominance of Japanese language owes to the fact that around 98.5% of the population is made up of ethnic Japanese. Japanese is the official language of Japan – specifically, the Tokyo dialect, also known as Eastern Japanese – which is considered to be the standard version of the language. Other official Japanese dialects include Hachijo Japanese, Kyushu Japanese, and Western Japanese.

Japanese Language and Its Influences: From Chinese Borrowings to Regional Dialects

Japanese is greatly influenced by the Chinese language, but modern Japanese borrowed many words from other foreign languages as well. Its numeral system is a mix of Chinese and Arabic numerals, for example. The issue of the origins of the Japanese language is often contested by historical scholars, but the most widely held view is that Japanese originated from the family of languages which also includes Korean, Mongolian, Manchu and Turkish – the Ural-Atlantic family of languages. Korean is actually most frequently compared to Japanese, given that both languages share significant key features such as general structure, lack of conjunctions, and vowel harmony. However, the two languages are mutually unintelligible as the pronunciation of Japanese is significantly different than Korean pronunciation.

There are two forms of standard Japanese: the Standard Japanese taught in educational institutions around Japan called Hyojungo, and which is also used in official communications and in media. Hyojungo is further classified into kogo (the oral language) and bungo (the literary language). Kogo and bungo differ in vocabulary and grammar. The other form of standard Japanese is called Kyotsugo (the common language). The Japanese language also differs in the accent between Western and Eastern Japanese.

There are several other languages and dialects spoken in Japan, which include the Ryukyuan languages, Ainu languages, the Orok language and the Nivkh language. These languages belong to two language families spoken in Japan: the Japonic languages and the Ainu languages.

The Japonic languages are further divided into Japanese languages and Ryukyuan languages. Japanese languages include Hachijo, Eastern, Western and Kyushu, while Ryukyuan languages include Northern Ryukyuan languages – Amami, Kunigami and Okinawa and Southern Ryukyuan languages – Miyako, Yaeyama and Yonaguni, which together account for less than one half of one percent of the population.

Endangered Languages of Japan: Preserving Cultural Heritage and Linguistic Richness

Many of the languages that are still spoken today in Japan are on the brink of extinction, such as Ryukyuan, Hokkaido Ainu, and the Nivkh language.

Some of the most widely-spoken foreign languages spoken on the island include Korean, spoken by approximately 900,000 residents, and Japanese Sign Language, with approximately 317,000 speakers. Other foreign languages that can be heard in Japan include English, German, Portuguese, Spanish, Russian and French. There are also small populations of Brazilians, Filipino, Chinese and Korean communities within the country.

Standard German is recognized as the official language of Germany and the working language of Germany’s national government. This West Germanic language, which is also one of the official and working languages of the European Union and the most commonly spoken first language among the member countries, is spoken by over 95% of the German population. The Standard German language is closely related to Low German, English, Dutch, Frisian and Afrikaans, and its vocabulary is mainly based on the vocabulary of the Germanic branch of languages, however minorities of words are also derived from Latin, Greek, English and French. Due to the heavy influence of the Germanic people on Europe’s language development, some European languages, such as French and English, are considered to be Germanic languages.

From Standard German to Exotic Echoes: Unraveling Germany’s Multilingual Landscape

Germany is a multilingual and multicultural society, with a long history of many different dialects and languages being spoken within the country. Besides German, approximately 67% of the country’s residents have the ability to speak at least one foreign language, with 27% of the population being able to speak two foreign languages.

Some of the minority dialects which can be heard in Germany include Low German, Upper Sorbian, Lower Sorbian, Frisian, Romani and Danish. Low German – or Plattdeutsch – was historically spoken in all regions occupied by the Saxons and spread across the entire North German Plain. Today it is spoken mainly in northern Germany, by approximately 5 million native speakers. Low German is quite distinct from Standard German and more closely related to English, Dutch, and Frisian. Upper Sorbian is spoken in Germany’s historical province of Upper Lusatia (part of Saxony), while Lower Sorbian is spoken by Sorbs living in the Lower Lusatia historical province, which is today part of Brandenburg. Lower Sorbian is a Slavic minority language which is currently highly endangered. The Upper and Lower Sorbian languages are spoken by about 0.09% of Germany’s population. Frisian is a minority West Germanic language which is spoken by about 10,000 people living in Germany’s North Frisia region. Romani is spoken by about 0.08% of Germany’s population, while Danish is spoken by about 0.06% of the country’s population.

Language Learning in Germany: Embracing Multilingualism

Germany is home to many immigrants from all over the world who speak their native languages inside the country. Some of the immigrant languages which can be heard in Germany include Turkish, Polish, Balkan languages, Kurdish and Russian. One of the most important foreign languages taught in schools in Germany, apart from French and Latin, is English. Depending on the geographical location, schools in Germany offer classes in languages such as Spanish, Greek, Russian, Polish and Dutch. There are also frequent discussions in Germany regarding the recognition of English as an official language, with nearly 60% of Germans being in favor of recognizing English as an official language in the European Union, according to a 2013 survey.

How many languages are spoken in India?

India is home to many major languages. Its linguistic landscape is so rich and varied, it is simply impossible to speak about an ‘Indian language’, as if there were only one. According to a 2011 consensus, India has more than 19,500 languages and dialects, of which almost 1,369 are considered as dialects and 121 are considered languages. ‘The Indian Language’ is actually 22 separate languages, all of which are recognized by the constitution as the official languages: Bengali, Hindi, Maithili, Nepalese, Sanskrit, Tamil, Urdu, Assamese, Dogri, Kannada, Gujarati, Bodo, Manipur, Odia, Marathi, Santali, Telugu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Malayalam, Konkani and Kashmiri. Sanskrit and Tamil are the only two official classical languages.

What are India’s Official Languages?

Hindi is the official language of India’s central government, along with English. However, individual state legislatures can adopt any regional language as their state’s official language. The most widely spoken languages in India are Hindi, Bengali, Marathi, Telugu, Tamil, Gujarati, Urdu, Kannada, Odia and Malayalam. Hindi is actually the fourth most natively-spoken language in the world, with almost 530 million people speaking it as a first language in India alone. From a linguistic perspective, Hindi belongs to the huge family of Indo-European languages, and it stems from Sanskrit, which – like English – is written from left to right, and most of its words are pronounced as they’re written. The name ‘Hindi’ is of Persian origin and stands for “the language of the land of the Indus River”. It came from the Persian-speaking Turks who invaded the plains of the Gangj and Punjab in the early 11th century. The Hindi Belt refers to the areas of India, mostly in the North, where Hindi is the official language: Himachal Pradesh, Delhi, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Uttaranchal, Jharkhand, Rajasthan and Chattisgarh.

Along with these, English, as one of the official languages of India’s federal government, (apart from Hindi) has been taught in schools in India from the 1800s. Today, English is no longer considered a foreign language because most people of India speak English, Hindi and one mother tongue. After almost 100 years of colonization, Indians adapted English to their own culture, which is why Indian English is very different than Standard English (the so-called “Hinglish”). English doesn’t have a very strong presence in the general social life of India, except in the upper classes, and the business sector. In fact, English is considered to be the unofficial language of business in India, especially in very lucrative sectors such as technology and customer service. Many children grow up in a bilingual environment, either because their parents speak different languages or because their community originates from another part of the country. Most private schools incorporate several languages into their curriculums, while public schools, which are generally attended by working-class children, mostly teach the everyday language spoken in that part of the country, although throughout the years there has been an effort to incorporate more English classes as well.

With over 58 million speakers, English is the de facto national language of the United Kingdom, meaning that it is not recognized as the official language by law, but simply due to the fact that the country overwhelmingly speaks the language. It wasn’t always this way, however: for a few centuries after the Norman Invasion of 1066, French was the primary language spoken by the government and the upper class, whereas English was mainly present among the lower classes. Today, over 98% of UK residents speak English, while only 31% speak at least two languages, making the UK the third least-likely European country to speak a foreign language. Despite the fact that English has a clear linguistic dominance in the UK, it is far from the only language spoken by its residents, with a number of languages and dialects having shaped the country due to its proximity to Europe and long history of colonialism. English is most strongly represented in England, despite being spoken nearly everywhere in the country, including Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.

Beyond the English Isles: A Diverse Tapestry of Indigenous and Immigrant Languages

The areas where minority languages are most likely to be encountered are Wales and northern Scotland, which have their own regional languages. Before the French or the Germanic people came to the British Isles, there were certain languages spoken by the people already, and a few of them still exist in various forms to this day. One of these is the Scots language, which is the most popular language after English, spoken by 1.5 million people in Scotland. People who speak Scots generally learned it as a second language (with the first being English), however Scots is kept as it contributes to the national identity of Scotland. After Scots, the most commonly spoken language, with 560,000 speakers, is Welsh. Welsh is the only language in the UK which has a legal status, and it is treated as equal to English in the country, meaning that it’s used by the government and all public services have signs in both languages. Only 19% of Wales’ population actually speaks Welsh, however, as compared to the 99% of those who speak English, with the number of Welsh speakers actually declining. Due to the law, however, it is unlikely that Welsh is ever going to go completely extinct. Some of the other minor indigenous languages are Angloromani, Scottish Gaelic, Shelta, Irish and Cornish.

Bridging Cultures: The Lively Linguistic Medley of the UK’s Immigrant Communities

Along with these, the UK is home to 4.2 million speakers of various immigrant languages, due to the fact that the country has been a hub of immigration in Europe for as long as it has existed, particularly for people from regions of India and Pakistan. The biggest immigrant language is Polish, however, with over half a million speakers. The reason for this is largely due to the opening of borders to Poland after the country joined the European Union in 2004. In the following years, the UK stayed very open to immigrants, leading to an influx of other languages spoken in the country. The next most-spoken immigrant languages all come from India and Pakistan: Punjabi, Urdu, Bengali and Gujarati. Again, this is mainly due to England’s strong presence in India during the 19th and 20th centuries. The other most-spoken languages in the UK after that include Arabic, French, Chinese, Portuguese and Spanish.

French is recognized by its constitution as the official language in the country. The government primarily communicates in French, as well as the 88% of the population who speaks it as their first language. Over the years, France has worked hard to promote the French language, and it even established the regulating body of the Académie Française in 1635 to protect and promote it. However, its relationship to its own regional languages is more complex as there are many regional languages that have been spoken inside France for at least as long, or even longer than French, and yet they still remain largely unrecognized. France is a signatory of an European Treaty adopted in 1992 whose goal is to protect and promote historical regional and minority languages in Europe, however it has still not ratified it. Therefore, most of those who speak minority languages also speak French, given that the regional and minority languages are given no to very limited legal recognition.

From French Dominance to Lingering Heritage: The Complex World of Regional and Minority Languages

Apart from French, other commonly spoken languages are English, Spanish, German, Italian, Arabic and Portuguese. Several languages spoken in different regions of France had their origin from the Germanic, Celtic and Gallo-Romance dialects, such as Breton, Corsican, Occitan, Gascon, Auvergnat and Norma. Breton is spoken by approximately 200,000 people, most of them residing in Brittany, where the language originated. For 300 years it was used by the French upper classes, after which it lost its prevalence to French and Latin. Today, it can only be heard in some regions in Lower Brittany. Corsican is otherwise known as lingua corsa, and it was an official language of Corsica until the mid-19th century. It was influenced by Tuscan, Italian and French, and has developed into several dialects which vary through Corsica and Northern Sardinia. It is currently spoken by less than 200,000 people, and it is being taught in schools and popularized by local media. Occitan is spoken in southern France, northern Spain and Italy’s Occitan Valley. These different dialects may resemble each other, however the differences between them can be significant. Gascon has about 250,000 speakers and is mostly spoken in the southwest of France. Due to the geographical proximity to Spain, it has some ties to the Basque language. Auvergnat is spoken in the historical province of Auvernhat in the south of France. A recent study revealed that over 80% of the residents understood the local dialect, and its popularity is rising, especially among the younger generation. Norma is mainly spoken in Normandy by about 100,000 people.

Other minority languages in France include Gallo, Basque, Languedocien, as well as Polish, Turkish, Dutch, Romanian, Chinese, Catalan, Croatian and Galician. Many of these languages are native – such as Gallo, Languedocien and Galician – and are actually thought to be nearing extinction.